Second Space Telescope in Safe-Mode

Another space telescope went into safe-mode due to a gyroscope issue. In this case the Chandra X-ray Observatory went into safe-mode on 10 October, 5-days after Hubble.

Unlike Hubble this particular problem as been resolved and the telescope was put back into normal operation.

Image: Chandra / NASA

 

The NASA press release included the process on going into safe-mode in this particular case.

From NASA:   The cause of Chandra’s safe mode on October 10 has now been understood and the Operations team has successfully returned the spacecraft to its normal pointing mode. The safe mode was caused by a glitch in one of Chandra’s gyroscopes resulting in a 3-second period of bad data that in turn led the on-board computer to calculate an incorrect value for the spacecraft momentum. The erroneous momentum indication then triggered the safe mode.

The team has completed plans to switch gyroscopes and place the gyroscope that experienced the glitch in reserve. Once configured with a series of pre-tested flight software patches, the team will return Chandra to science operations which are expected to commence by the end of this week.
At approximately 9:55 a.m. EDT on Oct. 10, 2018, NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory entered safe mode, in which the observatory is put into a safe configuration, critical hardware is swapped to back-up units, the spacecraft points so that the solar panels get maximum sunlight, and the mirrors point away from the Sun. Analysis of available data indicates the transition to safe mode was normal behavior for such an event. All systems functioned as expected and the scientific instruments are safe. The cause of the safe mode transition (possibly involving a gyroscope) is under investigation, and we will post more information when it becomes available.

Chandra is 19 years old, which is well beyond the original design lifetime of 5 years. In 2001, NASA extended its lifetime to 10 years. It is now well into its extended mission and is expected to continue carrying out forefront science for many years to come.

Update on Hubble

NASA published an update on Hubble. The telescope is in safe mode after gyro problems 10-days ago.

Hopefully a team new team of experts and sort the situation out.

NASA:  NASA continues to work toward resuming science operations of the Hubble Space Telescope after the spacecraft entered safe mode due to a failed gyroscope (gyro) on Friday, Oct. 5.

Following the gyro failure, the Hubble operations team turned on a backup gyro on the spacecraft. However, that gyro did not perform as expected, reporting rotation rates that are orders of magnitude higher than they actually are. This past week, tests were conducted to assess the condition of that backup gyro. The tests showed that the gyro is properly tracking Hubble’s movement, but the rates reported are consistently higher than the true rates. This is similar to a speedometer on your car continuously showing that your speed is 100 miles per hour faster than it actually is; it properly shows when your car speeds up or slows down, and by how much, but the actual speed is inaccurate.

When the spacecraft turns across the sky from one target to the next, the gyro is put into a coarser (high) mode. In this high mode it may be possible to subtract out a consistent large offset to get an accurate reading. However, after the large turns are over, the spacecraft attempts to lock onto a target and stay very still. For this activity, the gyro goes into a precision (low) mode to measure very small movements. The extremely high rates currently being reported exceed the upper limit of the gyro in this low mode, preventing the gyro from reporting the spacecraft’s small movements.

An anomaly review board that consists of professionals experienced in the manufacturing of such gyros, Hubble operations personnel, flight software engineers and other experts was formed earlier this week to identify the cause of this behavior and determine what solutions can be implemented from the ground to correct or compensate for it.

If the team is successful in solving the problem, Hubble will return to normal, three-gyro operations. If it is not, the spacecraft will be configured for one-gyro operations, which will still provide excellent science well into the 2020s, enabling it to work alongside the James Webb Space Telescope and continue groundbreaking science.

Safe mode places the telescope into a stable configuration that suspends science observations and orients the spacecraft’s solar panels toward the Sun to ensure Hubble’s power requirements are met. The spacecraft remains in this configuration until ground control can correct or compensate for the issue. The rest of the spacecraft and its instruments are still fully functional and are expected to produce excellent science for years to come.

A gyro is a device that measures the speed at which the spacecraft is turning, and is needed to help Hubble turn and lock on to new targets. To meet the stringent pointing requirements necessary to study far-off astronomical objects and obtain groundbreaking science data, Hubble’s gyros are extremely accurate. Hubble preferably uses three gyros at any given time to make the observatory as efficient as possible, and would work at slightly lower efficiency on only one gyro.

During Servicing Mission 4 in 2009, astronauts installed six new gyros on Hubble. Three gyros have since failed after achieving or exceeding the average runtime for a Hubble gyro. When fewer than three operational gyros remain, Hubble will continue to make scientific observations in a previously developed and tested mode that uses just one gyro in order to maximize the observatory’s lifetime.

Originally required to last 15 years, Hubble has now been operating for more than 28. The final servicing mission in 2009, expected to extend Hubble’s lifetime an additional 5 years, has now produced more than 9 years of science observations.

Hubble is managed and operated at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

BepiColumbo Launch a Week Away

We are only a week away from one of those missions I have been patiently waiting for and it’s finally happening.

It’s fun to watch a mission unfold from the very beginning evolve to launch and deployment.

Hopefully I won’t be in the middle of another regional internet outage like a couple of days ago – grrr.

Launch Date: 20 October 2018
Launch Time: 01:45 UTC / 21:45 ET

New School Challenges from ESA

Bravo ESA, makes me wish I were a kid again!

ESA:  In the beginning of the World Space Week, ESA is proud to present two new school challenges: Climate Detectives and Moon Camp.

Meant for teams of school students guided by a teacher or educator, Moon Camp and Climate Detectives give young people the chance to run interdisciplinary projects and develop new skills, ranging from science and technology to teamwork and communication, like real space experts would do.

Moon Camp

With Moon Camp, ESA and Airbus Foundation, in partnership with Autodesk, challenge students to take part in the future exploration of space by designing a human shelter on the Moon! The students will have to design a 3D Moon Camp able to sustain the lives of at least two astronauts, taking into account:

  • the use of local resources, such as lunar soil and ice
  • technological solutions, such as power sources, a recycling system, a food growth chamber
  • protection  from meteorites and radiation

The Moon Camp challenge presents two separate categories featuring different levels of complexity:

  • Category 1, for students  up to 12 years old, using the 3D design tool Tinkercad® (free online tool) and
  • Category 2, for students between 13 to 18 years old, using the 3D design tool Fusion 360® (free for students and schools).

Teams can submit their design from 1 November 2018 until 16 March 2019.

Find out more about Moon Camp and help ESA settle on the Moon!

Climate Detectives

Climate detectives

With Climate Detectives ESA challenges students to make a difference in understanding and protecting Earth’s climate.Students will identify a climate problem by observing their local environment and will be tasked to investigate it as Climate Detectives. To this end, they will use available Earth Observation data coming from real satellites, or take measurements on the ground. Based on their investigation, teams will propose a way to help reduce the problem. The students will learn about climate on Earth as a complex and changing system and the importance of respecting our environment.

Climate Detectives is open to teams of students between 8 and 15 years old. The project is deployed in three Phases. Submission for Phase 1 is now open, and it will close on 15 November 2018.

So, do not hesitate any further and find out more about Climate Detectives. ESA needs you to make a difference by protecting Earth’s climate and helping our planet!

Expedition 57 Launch – Fail – REPLAY

UPDATE 3: NASA is reporting the search and recovery teams have reached the landing site and both Nick Hague and Aleksey Ovchinin are as reported earlier in good condition. They are out of the capsule.

UPDATE 2 FROM NASA: “Teams have confirmed the crew have landed and Nick Hague and Aleksey Ovchinin are in good condition. Search and recovery teams have been deployed to the landing site and are in contact with the crew.”

UPDATE: THERE IS A PROBLEM. Booster problem. Sounds like the spacecraft will be returning. Search and Rescue crews are at the ready and are in the air. The time line should be about an hour and a half to get them secured, that would be around 10:30 UT / 06:30 ET.

NASA astronaut Nick Hague and Russian cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin will be launching to the International Space Station as the crew of Expedition 57. The pair will join other Expedition crew members Commander Alexander Gerst of ESA (European Space Agency, NASA Flight Engineer Serena Auñón-Chancellor and Roscosmos Flight Engineer Sergey Prokopyev, who arrived at the station in June.

Launch time 08:40 UT / 04:40 EDT.

Spaceport: Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan

Spacecraft: Soyuz MS-10

ISS Arrival time: N/A Launch failure

Solar Transit by the ISS

Ever tried to get a picture of the shadow of the ISS as it travels across the Sun? I have. No success (YET!), pretty amazing how many things go wrong though.

NASA: This composite image, made from nine frames, shows the International Space Station, with a crew of three onboard, in silhouette as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second, Sunday, Oct. 7, 2018. Onboard are Commander Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, Serena Auñón-Chancellor of NASA, and Sergey Prokopyev of Roscosmos. The trio will soon be joined by Nick Hague of NASA and Alexey Ovchinin of Roscosmos, who are scheduled to launch on October 11 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

Image Credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Hubble in Safe Mode

I hate to hear this, I know there are redundancies built in but still.

NASA’s Press Release: NASA is working to resume science operations of the Hubble Space Telescope after the spacecraft entered safe mode on Friday, October 5, shortly after 6:00 p.m. EDT. Hubble’s instruments still are fully operational and are expected to produce excellent science for years to come.

Hubble entered safe mode after one of the three gyroscopes (gyros) actively being used to point and steady the telescope failed. Safe mode puts the telescope into a stable configuration until ground control can correct the issue and return the mission to normal operation.

Built with multiple redundancies, Hubble had six new gyros installed during Servicing Mission-4 in 2009. Hubble usually uses three gyros at a time for maximum efficiency, but can continue to make scientific observations with just one.

The gyro that failed had been exhibiting end-of-life behavior for approximately a year, and its failure was not unexpected; two other gyros of the same type had already failed. The remaining three gyros available for use are technically enhanced and therefore expected to have significantly longer operational lives.

Two of those enhanced gyros are currently running. Upon powering on the third enhanced gyro that had been held in reserve, analysis of spacecraft telemetry indicated that it was not performing at the level required for operations. As a result, Hubble remains in safe mode. Staff at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and the Space Telescope Science Institute are currently performing analyses and tests to determine what options are available to recover the gyro to operational performance.

Science operations with Hubble have been suspended while NASA investigates the anomaly. An Anomaly Review Board, including experts from the Hubble team and industry familiar with the design and performance of this type of gyro, is being formed to investigate this issue and develop the recovery plan. If the outcome of this investigation results in recovery of the malfunctioning gyro, Hubble will resume science operations in its standard three-gyro configuration.

If the outcome indicates that the gyro is not usable, Hubble will resume science operations in an already defined “reduced-gyro” mode that uses only one gyro. While reduced-gyro mode offers less sky coverage at any particular time, there is relatively limited impact on the overall scientific capabilities.

Image: NASA

Asteroid Ryugu

Wow, what a great look at asteroid Ryugu. If you would like to see a (much) larger version you can, thanks to and credit to DLR via ESA just click here for the hi-resolution version at ESA (193K) very much worth the click.

HAYABUSA 2 is proving to be an excellent adventure to an asteroid and back.

Original press release with links:

Asteroid Ryugu, an ancient space rock roughly 300 million km from Earth, is now home to three Earth-born inhabitants bouncing across its bouldery surface. In the early morning of 3 October 2018, the Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) gently fell to the asteroid’s surface, joining its Japanese siblings, the MINERVA-II rovers1-A and 1-B.

This remarkable image was taken during MASCOT’s descent, 3.5 minutes after separation from its parentship and 20 metres from its final resting place. At the top right, MASCOT’s fuzzy shadow can be seen, standing out next to the sharp detail of Ryugu’s puckered surface.

Developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in cooperation with the French space agency CNES, MASCOT was originally thought to have enough power to explore the mile-long rock for just 12 hours. However, the adventurous box delighted its team when it inspected Ryugu’s surface for more than 17 hours, making an extra bounce and sending all the data collected back to the mothership, Hayabusa2.

The Hayabusa2 spacecraft left Earth in December 2014, carrying four small rovers designed to investigate Ryugu’s surface. Each fell freely to the surface under the asteroid’s weak gravity, bouncing on arrival and immediately collecting data on their strange new world.

The spacecraft is expected to return 3 samples to Earth in December 2020 from varying parts of the ancient asteroid. With these specimens, scientists on Earth hope to learn about the composition of carbonaceous asteroids like Ryugu — a type of space rock expected to preserve some of the most pristine materials in the Solar System.

This class of asteroid also has members who at times come too close to Earth for comfort, near-Earth objects (NEOs). It is hoped that Hayabusa’s incredible mission will shed light on these marauding masses which could come in handy if we one day need to defend ourselves from them.

Undoubtedly, Hayabusa’s insights into this giant pile of space rubble will prove useful to the teams involved in ESA’s ambitious proposed mission to test asteroid deflection, Hera — in particular, understanding the low gravity environment of these unique solar system bodies.

Space X SAOCOM 1A – Launch REPLAY

SpaceX launches SAOCOM 1A satellite for Argentina.

The launch is from Vandenburg AFB in California and this also marks the first time the first-stage has returned to California – so SpaceX makes history again.

The launch is about 16 minutes into the video above from SpaceX. You can fast forward there but if you do you will miss some great information SpaceX always includes prior to launch.