Category Archives: Cassini

More Refracted Rings

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The citizens of Earth have spacecraft orbiting the two largest planets in our solar system. Juno of course is just getting going and has entered its second of 37 orbits – plenty to come, Cassini on the other hand has been at Saturn since 2004 and is still going strong.

From the Cassini team:

Saturn’s rings appear to bend as they pass behind the planet’s darkened limb due to refraction by Saturn’s upper atmosphere.

The effect is the same as that seen in an earlier Cassini view (see PIA20491), except this view looks toward the unlit face of the rings, while the earlier image viewed the rings’ sunlit side.

The difference in illumination brings out some noticeable differences. The A ring is much darker here, on the rings’ unlit face, since its larger particles primarily reflect light back toward the sun (and away from Cassini’s cameras in this view). The narrow F ring (at bottom), which was faint in the earlier image, appears brighter than all of the other rings here, thanks to the microscopic dust that is prevalent within that ring. Small dust tends to scatter light forward (meaning close to its original direction of travel), making it appear bright when backlit. (A similar effect has plagued many a driver with a dusty windshield when driving toward the sun.)

This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 19 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 24, 2016.

The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 527,000 miles (848,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 169 degrees. Image scale is 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel.

Images: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

A Bright Spot On the Rings

Cassini sent back this image pointing out the bright spot on the rings which they call a surge – see below.

I even knew what it was, somehow I remembered a previous post – 10 years ago.

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Memory aside, I better let the Cassini folks explain and link to that previous example:

An ethereal, glowing spot appears on Saturn’s B ring in this view from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. There is nothing particular about that place in the rings that produces the glowing effect — instead, it is an example of an “opposition surge” making that area on the rings appear extra bright.

An opposition surge occurs when the sun is directly behind the observer looking toward the rings. The particular geometry of this observation makes the point in the rings appear much, much brighter than would otherwise be expected.

For more on the surge, see PIA08247.

This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 28 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini wide-angle camera on June 26, 2016.

The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 940,000 miles (1.5 million kilometers) from the rings and at a sun-ring-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 0 degrees. Image scale on the rings at center is 56 miles (90 kilometers) per pixel.

Image and caption: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Contrasting Dione

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Cassini continues to amaze.  Such a good value IMHO.

From NASA:

Dione reveals its past via contrasts in this view from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. The features visible here are a mixture of tectonics — the bright, linear features — and impact cratering — the round features, which are spread across the entire surface.

Tectonic features tell the story of how Dione (698 miles or 1,123 kilometers across) has been heated and cooled since its formation, and scientists use those clues to piece together the moon’s past. Impact craters are evidence of external debris striking the surface, and thus they tell about the environment in which the moon has existed over its history.

This view looks toward the trailing hemisphere of Dione. North on Dione is up. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini narrow-angle camera on April 11, 2015.

The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 68,000 miles (110,000 kilometers) from Dione and at a Sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 28 degrees. Image scale is 2,165 feet (660 meters) per pixel.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov and http://www.nasa.gov/cassini. The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Tethys and Hyperion

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Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

 Original caption released with image:

Saturn’s moons Tethys and Hyperion appear to be near neighbors in this Cassini view, even though they are actually 930,000 miles (1.5 million kilometers) apart here. Tethys is the larger body on the left.

These two icy moons of Saturn are very different worlds. To learn more about Hyperion (170 miles or 270 kilometers across), see Odd Hyperion; to learn more about Tethys (660 miles or 1,062 kilometers across) see Dark Belt of Tethys.

This view looks toward the trailing side of Tethys. North on Tethys is up and rotated 1 degree to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Aug. 15, 2015.

The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 750,000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Tethys. Image scale is 4.4 miles (7.0 kilometers) per pixel. The distance to Hyperion was 1.7 million miles (2.7 million kilometers) with an image scale of 10 mile (16 kilometers) per pixel.

Nearing The Solstice

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Saturn is nearing the northern-hemisphere solstice.  The shadow on the rings is shortening as the time gets closer in this image taken in May 2016 – compare to this image taken in 2007.

Notice the shadow is just beyond the Cassini Division, by the time the solstice gets here in May 2017 the shadow will be just past the half-way point of the B-ring (the wide light colored ring).  A year to wait for the solstice might seem like a long time, but consider it takes about 29.5 Earth-years for ONE Saturn year.  Visit our Saturn page for a lot more information on the planet and the moons.

Shadows on the Saturn system are not new.  Years before the Cassini spacecraft took these images, a gentleman named Robert Hooke noted shadows in drawings he made of Saturn in 1666.

Cassini took this image from about 3.2 million km / 2 million miles and there are a couple of things other than the shadow to take note of:  the northern polar vortex stands out nicely and the moon Mimas is visible to the lower left of the planet.

Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Saturn’s Atmosphere

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Cassini gives us this close-up view of Saturn’s swirling atmosphere. The Juno mission to Jupiter may help us understand what is going on inside Saturn as well.  You will notice a “ring” on the right side in the dark band.  This is an artifact, quite possibly a bit of dust.

This image was obtained by Cassini (Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute) on 20 July 2016.

Bending Light at Saturn

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Reflecting and refracting, click the image to see a larger version.

Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

The original caption from NASA:
Saturn’s A and F rings appear bizarrely warped where they intersect the planet’s limb, whose atmosphere acts here like a very big lens.

In its upper regions, Saturn’s atmosphere absorbs some of the light reflected by the rings as it passes through. But absorption is not the only thing that happens to that light. As it passes from space to the atmosphere and back out into space towards Cassini’s cameras, its path is refracted, or bent. The result is that the ring’s image appears warped.

This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 18 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on June 9, 2016.

The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from the rings and at a Sun-rings-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 112 degrees. Image scale is 7 miles (11 kilometers) per pixel.

Cassini’s Unique View Of Enceladus

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A unique view of the moon Enceladus thanks to the Sun-Saturn-Spacecraft geometry. Below is zoomed in on the Enceladus region.

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NASA’s caption:
Wispy fingers of bright, icy material reach tens of thousands of kilometers outward from Saturn’s moon Enceladus into the E ring, while the moon’s active south polar jets continue to fire away.

This astonishing, never-before-seen structure is made visible with the sun almost directly behind the Saturn system from Cassini’s vantage point. The sun-Enceladus-spacecraft angle here is 175 degrees, a viewing geometry in which structures made of tiny particles brighten substantially.

These features are very likely the result of particles injected into Saturn orbit by the Enceladus geysers: Those injected in the direction of the moon’s orbital motion end up on larger, slower orbits and trail Enceladus in its orbit, and those injected into the opposite direction end up smaller, faster orbits and lead Enceladus. (Orbital motion is counter-clockwise.) In addition, the configuration of wisps may hint at an interaction between Saturn’s magnetosphere and the torrent of particles issuing from Enceladus.

In addition to the wisps, another unexpected detail is the dark gore in the center of the ring, following the moon in its orbit, likely brought about by the sweeping action of Enceladus as it orbits in the center of the E ring.

The view looks down onto Enceladus (505 kilometers, or 314 miles across) from about 15 degrees above the ringplane. Tethys (1,071 kilometers, or 665 miles across) is visible to the left of Enceladus.

The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Sept. 15, 2006, at a distance of approximately 2.1 million kilometers (1.3 million miles) from Enceladus. Image scale is 128 kilometers (80 miles) per pixel.

Image and caption: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

Saturn and Enceladus

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Another beautiful image from the Cassini spacecraft orbiting around Saturn.

From NASA:
At first glance, the most obvious features in this image from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft are Saturn’s rings and the icy moon Enceladus. Upon closer inspection, Saturn’s night side is also visible (near top center), faintly illuminated by sunlight reflected off the rings.

In this view, icy Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) hangs in the space between Cassini and the giant planet.

This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from 0.14 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 18, 2015.

The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 87,000 miles (139,000 kilometers) from Enceladus. Image scale is 5 miles (8 kilometers) per pixel.

Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Janus and Mimas

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About the image:
Saturn’s moons Janus and Mimas coast in their silent orbits beyond the rings in this view from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. The ansa, or outer edge of the rings, is visible at left. Janus hangs above center, while Mimas shines at right. Owing to its irregular shape, Janus’ terminator — that line which separates day from night — is jagged, while Mimas’ smooth terminator belies its round shape and larger size.

The image was taken in green light with Cassini’s narrow-angle camera on Oct. 27, 2015.

The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 598,000 miles (963,000 kilometers) from Janus and at a Sun-Janus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 86 degrees. Image scale at Janus is 3.6 miles (5.8 kilometers) per pixel. The distance to Mimas was 680,000 miles (1.1 million kilometers) for an image scale of 4.1 miles (6.6 kilometer) per pixel.

Image and caption: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute