Category Archives: History

Image From the Far Side

Congratulations to China and the Chinese space program. They made history by putting the Chang’e4 lander on the surface of the Moon, on the far side – the first time in history.

The lander which includes a rover will study mineral composition and reportedly do low frequency radio-astronomy landed in Von Karman crater.

The crater you see in the image above is not Von Karman, it is a small crater within Von Karman. Von Karman is a very large crater 180 Km / 106 miles across and is located in he south-eastern quadrant on the far-side of the moon and thus never visible to us (Longitude: 176.245 east / Latitude: 44.451 south). From the photo it appears the part of the crater wall might be visible in the background.

Here is a view from the Virtual Moon Atlas. I checked and there is no information on the smaller caters within the main crater. So I was unable to figure out exactly where it is from the image.  If you don’t have the Virtual Moon Atlas you can download it here. it is free and a great program.

The upper image is from China Xinhua News and by the way, if you are wondering how they got the signal back to Earth, it was done by a relay from the Queqiao relay satellite operating in orbit around the second Lagrangian (L2) point of the earth-moon system.

The lower image as noted is from the Virtual Moon Atlas and you can (or should be able to) get larger versions by clicking the images.

Ultima Thule First Look – Oh My!

OUTSTANDING! What else can one say? Just outstanding. We have the first clear look at Ultima Thule.

Yes we have color too! (click the image below for a larger version)

And of course you want particulars. I wasn’t going to put up another video but you might as well get the particulars straight from John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory — really good stuff:

Ultima Thule Flyby

Here’s the video from the first part of the coverage – data acquisition.

Ultima Thule flyby signal acquisition comes first at 14:45 UT / 09:45 ET. I’ll leave the link up for the post flyby press conference a couple hours later (16:30 UT / 11:30 ET).

Note: it is 15:15 UT and the coverage is about to start.

The spacecraft has data!  Press conference in about 45 minutes @ 16:30 UTC.

 

New Horizons On Track to Ultima Thule

This update video is from a couple of days ago; there will be a press conference later today but for now everything looks good for New Horizons on its way to flyby the Kuiper Belt Object called Ultima Thule at 05:33 UT / 00:33 ET tomorrow, New Years Day! I’ll try to update after the press conference if anything substantial happens. EDIT: If you noticed the ET time-conversion, you might be scratching your head – or not. I used 12:33 ET which would be correct as probably most North Americans are concerned, but it is indeed not proper if not just plain incorrect. I’ve corrected the time to be accurate.

Happy New Year wishes to everyone and if you are celebrating please be safe!!

Ultima Thule Here We Come!

On New Year’s Day the New Horizons spacecraft will visit a very distant “worldlet” called Ultima Thule. Ultima Thule is around 4,000 million miles / 6,438 million km from the Sun and New Horizon’s was launched on 19 January 2006. The little world is so far away it takes over six hours for a radio signal to reach us – a very long journey!

Have a look at this from New Horizons / John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory.

Apollo 8 Spends the Holiday around Moon

Can you imagine spending the holidays with this view? It was done 50 years ago by astronauts: Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, and William A. Anders during the Apollo 8 mission.

To re-live (or experience for the first time) click here.

NASA: Precisely on time on Dec. 24, 1968, Mission Control lost contact with Apollo 8 and its crew of Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, and William A. Anders. And everyone at NASA and onboard Apollo 8 was happy about that. It meant that the spacecraft and crew were on a precise trajectory to swing behind the Moon, and if all went well, to fire the Service Module’s Service Propulsion System (SPS) engine to slow their velocity just enough to allow the Moon’s gravitational field to capture them. With a successful Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn, they would become the first crewed spacecraft in lunar orbit, and Mission Control would regain the signal after 32 minutes and 37 seconds. If it didn’t fire at all, they would regain the signal in 22 minutes and it meant Apollo 8 was heading back to Earth. And of course, a variety of engine malfunctions could result in different signal reacquisition times.

While NASA and the world awaited to hear from Apollo 8, Borman, Lovell, and Anders busied themselves with preparing for the engine burn. Just a few minutes before ignition, the crew got its first glimpse of the Moon. During the 66-hour coast to the Moon, the spacecraft was oriented with the SPS engine facing in the direction of travel, so the windows were pointed toward the Earth. Now, about 70 miles above its surface, the Moon finally entered into their field of view and the Apollo 8 crewmembers became the first humans to directly see the farside. Exactly on schedule, the SPS engine lit up and burned for just over four minutes, placing Apollo 8 into an elliptical 70-by-195-mile orbit around the Moon.

Just as expected, Mission Control began receiving telemetry from Apollo 8 as it came out from behind the Moon, followed by Lovell’s simple call, “Houston, Apollo 8. Burn complete.” From Mission Control, Capcom Carr replied, “Apollo 8, this is Houston. Good to hear your voice.” As they passed over the Sea of Fertility, Lovell provided this commentary: “The Moon is essentially grey, no color; looks like plaster of Paris or sort of a grayish beach sand. We can see quite a bit of detail. … The craters are all rounded off. There’s quite a few of them, some of them are newer.” They also flew over the two most easterly of the five potential sites for the first Moon landing, providing verbal narration and taking photographs.

For the next 20 hours, Apollo 8 remained in orbit around the Moon, each revolution taking about two hours, of which 45 minutes was spent out of radio contact with Earth while the spacecraft flew behind the Moon. The astronauts began their second revolution with a 12-minute TV broadcast showing the Moon as it appeared to them through the spacecraft window. At the end of the second revolution, once again behind the Moon, the crew preformed the second LOI burn using the SPS engine and lasting less than 10 seconds to circularize the orbit at 70 miles. The trio conducted extensive photography of the lunar surface, mostly of the farside given it had more sunlight, but also of proposed landing sites on the nearside. At the beginning of the fourth revolution, as they were about to round the backside of the Moon, the astronauts caught sight of the Earth appearing above the lunar limb. Anders snapped some of the most iconic photos of the Apollo program, first in black and white and then the more famous color Earthrise images.

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Around the Moon

Yesterday, 21 December marked the 50th anniversary of Apollo 8 which launched on 21 December 1968. Humankind’s first trip around the moon. A GREAT feat then and it hasn’t been done so many times that it won’t be a great feat when it gets again in the near future.

Seas of Infinity – Stargazer

The beginning – Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) 2 and nicknamed Stargazer, it would become NASA’s first successful cosmic explorer and the direct ancestor of Hubble, Chandra, Swift, Kepler, FUSE, GALEX and many other astronomy satellites.

Rocket Lab Launches CubeSats

Rocket Lab makes history with this launch of CubeSats, including one by students atop an Electron rocket. Great job and it looks like the future is bright for Rocket Lab. By the way, the launch is at about the 18 minute mark so you may want to fast-forward.

NASA: A series of new CubeSats now are in space, conducting a variety of scientific investigations and technology demonstrations, following launch Sunday of Rocket Lab’s first mission for NASA under a Venture Class Launch Services (VCLS) contract.

An Electron rocket lifted off at 1:33 a.m. EST (7:33 p.m. NZDT) from the company’s launch complex on the Mahia Peninsula in New Zealand, marking the first time CubeSats have launched for NASA on a rocket designed specifically for small payloads.

“With the VCLS effort, NASA has successfully advanced the commercial launch service choices for smaller payloads, providing viable dedicated small launch options as an alternative to the rideshare approach,” said Jim Norman, director of Launch Services at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “This first mission is opening the door for future launch options.”

At the time of the VCLS award in 2015, launch opportunities for small satellites and science missions were limited to ridesharing – flying only when space was available on other missions. Managed by NASA’s Launch Services Program at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, VCLS awards are designed to foster a commercial market where SmallSats and CubeSats could be placed in orbits to get the best science return.

This mission includes 10 Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa)-19 payloads, selected by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative. The initiative is designed to enhance technology development and student involvement. These payloads will provide information and demonstrations in the following areas:

“Low cost launch services to enable expanded science from smaller satellites are now a reality.  NASA’s Earth Venture program and indeed our entire integrated, Earth-observing mission portfolio will benefit greatly from the ability to launch small satellites into optimal orbits, when and where we want them,” said Dr. Michael Freilich, Director of Earth Science at NASA Headquarters in Washington.  “Our partnership with LSP on the VCLS effort is helping both NASA and the commercial launch sector.”

CubeSats are small satellites built in standard units of 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, or in configurations of two, three or six units. These small satellites play a valuable role in the agency’s exploration, technology, educational, and science investigations, including planetary exploration, Earth observation, and fundamental Earth and space science. They are a cornerstone in the development of cutting-edge NASA technologies like laser communications, satellite-to-satellite communications and autonomous movement.

NASA will continue to offer CubeSats an opportunity to hitch a ride on primary missions in order to provide opportunities to accomplish mission objectives, and expects to announce the next round of CubeSats for future launches in February 2019.