Appendix 5:

Planetary Linguistics




Names of the Planets

English is generally recognized as the international language for professional astronomy. However, the various languages often also have their own words which are used in everyday speech.

  English    Sun       Mercury      Venus     Earth     Moon     Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptune      Pluto 
  OldEnglish Sunne     Mercurius    Venus     Eore     Mōna     Mars     Iupiter   Saturnus
  Latin      Sol       Mercurius    Venus     Terra     Luna     Mars     Jupiter   Saturnus   Uranus       Neptunus     Pluto
  Italian    Sole      Mercurio     Venere    Terra     Luna     Marte    Giove     Saturno    Urano        Nettuno      Plutone
  Ligurian   S        Mercuio      Venere    Tra      Luna     Marte    Giove     Satrno    Uran         Nettun       Pluton
  Venetian   Sołe      Mercurio     Venere    Tera      Łuna     Marte    Xove      Saturno    Urano        Netuno       Plutone
  Spanish    Sol       Mercurio     Venus     Tierra    Luna     Marte    Júpiter   Saturno    Urano        Neptuno      Plutón
  Galacian   Sol       Mercurio     Venus     Terra     Lúa      Marte    Xúpiter   Saturno    Urano        Neptuno      Plutón
  Catalan    Sol       Mercuri      Venus     Terra     Lluna    Mart     Júpiter   Saturn     Urà          Neptú        Plutó
  Portuguese Sol       Mercúrio     Vênus     Terra     Lua      Marte    Júpiter   Saturno    Urano        Neptuno      Plutão
  French     Soleil    Mercure      Vénus     Terre     Lune     Mars     Jupiter   Saturne    Uranus       Neptune      Pluton
  Jrriais   Sol      Mrtchure    Vnus     Trre     Leune    Mars     Jupiter   Saturne    Uranus       Nepteune     Pliuton
  Provenal  Solely    Mrcure      Vnus     Trra     Lena     Mrs     Jupitr   Saturno    Urano        Neptuno      Pluton    (Franco-Provenal)
  Walloon    Solea     Mierkeure    Venusse   Tere      Lune     Mss     Djupiter  Satne     Uranusse     Nton        Pluton
  Romanian   Soare     Mercur       Venus     Pamint    Luna     Marte    Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Sicilian   Suli      Mircuriu     Vniri    Terra     Luna     Marti	  Giovi     Saturnu    Uranu        Nettunu      Plutoni
  Maltese    Ix-Xemx   Merkurju     Venere    Id-Dinja  il-Qamar Marte    Gove      Saturno    Uranu        Nettunu      Plutone
  Esperanto  Suno      Merkuro      Venuso    Tero      Luno     Marso    Jupitero  Saturno    Urano        Neptuno      Plutono
  German     Sonne     Merkur       Venus     Erde      Mond     Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Low German Snn      Merkur       Venus     Eer       Maand    Mars	  Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Dutch      Zon       Mercurius    Venus     Aarde     Maan     Mars     Jupiter   Saturnus   Uranus       Neptunus     Pluto
  Alemannish.Sunne     Merkur       Venus     Erde      Mond     Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto     (Alemannisch)
  Yiddish    Zun       Merkur       Venus     Erd       Levone   Mars     Yupiter   Zaturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Limburgish Zon       Mercuur      Venus     Eerd      Maon     Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uraan        Neptuun      Pluto
  Klsch     Sunn      Merrkuur     Veenu    d       Moond    Mars     Juppitter Satturrən  Urranu      Nepptuun     Pluuto
  W. Frisian Sinne     Merkurius    Fenus     Ierde     Moanne   Mars	  Jupiter   Saturnus   Uranus       Neptunus     Pluto     (West Frisian)
  Luxembourg.Sonn      Merkur       Venus     erd      Mound    Mars	  Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto     (Luxembourgish)
  Afrikaans  Son       Mercurius    Venus     Aarde     Maan     Mars     Jupiter   Saturnus   Uranus       Neptunus     Pluto
  Scots      Sun       Mercur       Venus     Yird      Muin     Maurs	  Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptune      Pluto
  Swedish    Solen     Merkurius    Venus     Jorden    Månen    Mars     Jupiter   Saturnus   Uranus       Neptunus     Pluto
  Norwegian  Sola      Merkur       Venus     Jorda     Månen    Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Danish     Solen     Merkur       Venus     Jorden    Månen    Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Icelandic  Sól       Merkúr       Venus     Jör      Tungl    Mars     Júpíter   Satúrnus   Úranus       Neptúnus     Plútó
  Faroese    Sl       Merkur       Venus     Jrin    Mni     Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Finnish    Aurinko   Merkurius    Venus     Maa       Kuu      Mars     Jupiter   Saturnus   Uranus       Neptunus     Pluto
  Albanian   Dielli    Merkuri      Afërdita  Toka      Hëna     Marsi    Jupiteri  Saturni    Uranusi      Neptuni      Plutoni
  Estonian   Päike     Merkuur      Veenus    Maa       Kuu      Marss    Jupiter   Saturn     Uraan        Neptuun      Pluuto
  Latvian    Saule     Merkurs      Vene'ra   Zeme      Me'ness  Marss    Jupiters  Saturns    Ura'ns       Neptu'ns     Pluto
  Hungarian  Nap       Merkùr       Vénusz    Föld      Hold     Mars     Jupiter   Szaturnusz Uránusz      Neptunusz    Plútó
  Czech      Slunce    Merkur       Venuse    Zeme      Mesíc    Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluto
  old Czech  Slunce    Dobropan     Krasopani Zeme      Mesic    Smrtonos Kralomoc  Hladolet   Nebestanka   Vodopan      Pluto
  Slovenian  Sonce     Merkur       Venera    Zemlja    Mesec    Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton
  Croatian   Sunce     Merkur       Venera    Zemlja    Mjesec   Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton
  Serbian    Sunce     Merkur       Venera    Zemlja    Mesec    Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton
  Polish     Slonce    Merkury      Wenus     Ziemia    Ksiezyc  Mars     Jowisz    Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton
  Georgian   Mze       Merkuri      Venera    Dedamizha Mthware  Marsi    Iupiteri  Saturni    Urani        Neptuni      Plutoni
  Russian    Solnce    Merkurij     Venera    Zemlja    Luna     Mars     Yupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton
  Ukrainian  Sontse    Merkuriy     Venera    Zemlya    Misyatsy Mars     Yupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton
  Belarus.   Sontsa    Merkury      Venera    Zyamlya   Mesyats  Mars     Yupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton    (Belarussian)
  Lithuanian Saulė     Merkurijus   Venera    Zemė      Mėnulis  Marsas   Jupiteris Saturnas   Uranas       Neptūnas     Plutonas
  Samogitian Saulė     Merkorėjos   Ausrėnė   Zemė      Mienolis Zėizdrė  Jopėteris Soturns    Urans        Naptūns      Plutuons
  Bulgarian  Slanze    Merkurij     Venera    Zemya     Luna     Mars     Jupiter   Saturn     Uran         Neptun       Pluton
  Basque     Eguzkia   Merkurio     Artizar   Lurra     Ilargia  Martitza Jupiter   Saturno    Urano        Neptuno      Pluton
  Greek      Helios    Hermes       Aphrodite Gaea      Selene   Ares     Zeus      Kronos     Uranos       Poseidon     Pluton  
  Sanskrit   Surya     Budha        Sukra     Dhara     Chandra  Mangala  Brhaspati Sani
  Gujarati   Surya     Budh         Shukra    Prathivi  Chandra  Mangal   Guru      Shani      Prajapathie  Varun        Yamdev
  Bengali    Surya     Budh         Shukra    Prithivi  Chand    Mangal   BrihaspatiShani
  Tamil      Njaayar   Budan        Vellhi    Buumi     Tingalh  Sevvaay  Viyaazhan Sani
  Thai       Surya     Budha        Sukra     Lok       Chandra  Angkarn  Prhasbadi Sao        Uranus       Neptune      Pluto
  Irish      Grian     Mearcair     Véineas   An Domhan Gealach  Mars     Iúpatar   Satarn     Uránas       Neiptiún     Plútón
  Sc. Gaelic Grian     Mearcair     Ribhinn   An Talamh Gealach  Corg     Bliogh    Satarn     Urnus       Neiptin     Plit    (Scottish Gaelic)
  Welsh      Haul      Mercher      Gwener    Daear     Lleuad   Mawrth   Iau       Sadwrn     Wranws       Neifion      Plwton
  Breton     Heol      Merc'her     Gwener    Douar     Loar     Meurzh   Yaou      Sadorn     Ouran        Neizhan      Ploudon
  Hebrew     Shemesh   Kochav Chama Nogah     Eretz     Yareach  Ma'adim  Tzedek    Shabtay    Uron         Rahav        Pluto
  Arabic     Shams     Otaared      Zuhra     Ard       Quamar   Merrikh  Mushtarie Zuhal      Uraanus      Niptuun      Plutoon
  Turkish    Günes     Merkür       Venüs     Dünya     Ay       Mars     Jüpiter   Satürn     Uranüs       Neptün       Plüton
  Uzbek      Quyosh    Utorid       Zuhra     Yer       Oy       Mirrikh  Mushtarij Zuhal
  Farsi      Khorshid  Tir          Naheed    Zamin     Mah      Bahram   Berjis    Kayvon     Oranos       Nepton       Pluton
  Cantonese  Taiyeung  Suising      Gumsing   Deiqao    Yueqao   Fuosing  Moqsing   Tousing    Tinwongsing  Huoiwongsing Mengwongsing
  Mandarin   Taiyang   Shuixing     Jinxing   Diqiu     Yueqiu   Huoxing  Muxing    Tuxing     Tianwangxing Haiwangxing  Mingwangxing
  Korean     Taeyang   Soosung      Kumsung   Jeegoo    Dal      Hwasung  Moksung   Tosung     Chunwangsung Haewangsung  Myungwangsung
  Japanese   Taiyou    Suisei       Kinsei    Chikyuu   Tsuki    Kasei    Mokusei   Dosei      Ten'ousei    Kaiousei     Meiousei
  Filipino   Araw      Merkuryo     Venus     Daigdig   Buwan    Marte    Jupiter   Saturno    Uranus       Neptuno      Pluto
  Indonesian Matahari  Merkurius    Venus     Bumi      Bulan    Mars     Yupiter   Saturnus   Uranus       Neptunus     Pluto
  Malay      Matahari  Utarid       Zuhrah    Bumi      Bulan    Marikh   Musytari  Zuhal      Uranus       Neptun       Pluto
  Tahitian   Mahana    Taa'ero      Ta'urua   Fenua     Marama   Maunu'Ura Ta'urua-nui Feti'a Tea
  Hawaiian   Laa       Ukaliali'i   Hookuuloa Honua     Mahina   Hookuu'ula Ka'aawela Makulu   Hele'ekela   Nepekune     'Ilioki
  Maori      Rā                     Meretūahiahi        Marama            Pareārau             Whērangi                  Whiro
  Maori                Apārangi               Papatuānuku        Tūmatauenga        Rongo                   Tangaroa
  Nahuatl    Tonatiuh               Citlalpol           Metztli           Tezcatlipocacitlalli Ilhuicateocitlalli        Mictlanteuccitlalli
  Nahuatl              Payinalcitlalli        Tlalticpactli      Chichilcitlalli    Tzitzimicitlalli        Tlaloccitlalli 
  Swahili    Jua       Utaridi      Zuhura    Dunia     Mwezi    Mirihi   Mshtarii  Zohari
  Xhosa      iLanga    uMetyhuri    uVenasi   uMhlaba   iNyanga  uMarsi   uJupita   iSateni    uYurenasi    iNephthuni   uPluto
  Sesotho    Letsatsi  Mekhuri      Vinase    Lefatshe  Kgwedi   Mase     Jupita    Satene     Yuranese     Nepetjhunu   Puluto
  Sepedi     Letsatsi  Mekhuri      Mphatlalatsane
  Sepedi                                      Lefase    Ngwedi   Mmase    Jupita    Satuni     Yurenuse     Neputhuni    Pluto
  Tswana     Letsatsi  Mekhuri      Benase    Lefatshe  Ngwedi   Mase     Selemela  Sathene    Yuranase     Nepetshunu   Pholuto
  Zulu       iLanga    uMekhyuri    uVinasi   uMhlaba   iNyanga  uMarzi   uNdonsakusa uSarthana uYurenasi   uNephthuni   uPlutho
  Sumerian   Utu       Udu-idim-gu-ud Nin-si-an-na      Suen     Si-mu-ud Mul-sag-me-gar Udu-idim-sag-us
  Babylonian Samas     Sihtu        Delebat   Ersetu    Sin      Salbatanu Neberu   Kayamanu
  Klingon    Sol       merqurI'     vIneS     tera'     luna     ma'rIS   ju'pIter  Sa'tun     yurey'neS    neptun       pulu'to'
Notes:
  1. For brevity's sake I've omitted the articles commonly used in some languages.
  2. The Mandarin and Cantonese words mean (approximately): "The Brightest; Star of Water; Star of Gold; Sphere of Ground (Earth); Sphere of Moon, Star of Fire; Star of Wood; Star of Soil (Dirt); Star of the King of Heaven; Star of the King of the Ocean; Star of the King of Hell". The Korean, Japanese, Mandarin and Cantonese lines are pronunciations. Note too, that since Uranus, Neptune and Pluto were discovered relatively recently, their names are just translations of the Western names.
  3. Japanese and Korean use simple native words for "Moon" ("tsuki" "dal") but all the other planetary names in these two languages were imported from Chinese and have exactly the same meaning as explained for Mandarin and Cantonese. arabic characters
  4. The Chinese characters at the top of the page are the names of the solar system bodies in the same order as the table. The second set of characters at the top of the page is Hindi. To the right is Arabic script.
  5. The apostrophe character in the Latvian line is a diacritical mark for a long vowel, which is a straight line over the letter.
  6. I have been informed that Thai has many scientific and theologic terms taken from sanscrit. But the way it pronounced is far from the original. If one read names given above hardly anybody Thai would recognize them. Here is a more phonetical presentation of Thai celestial bodies:
    • Sun = (1) suriya (mythological); (2) pra-atit (high language); (3) tawan (coloqual)
    • Mercury = [dau]-put
    • Venus = [dau-pra]-suk
    • Earth = lok (also "world")
    • Moon = [pra]-jan
    • Mars = [dau]-angkan
    • Jupiter = [dau]-parihat-bodi
    • Saturn = [dau]-sau
    • Uranus = [dau]-marita-yu
    • Neptune = [dau]-ket
    • Pluto = no native term, English used
    "Dau" or "dao" literally means "star". Need to add before name of the planet, beacuse those names also used for days of the week (dau-sau=Saturn, wan-sau=Saturday, wan=day). "Pra" - is used for nominate a God (great, holy). Used for Sun and Moon as they are obviously not "dau" (stars).
  7. Much of this was taken from the ASTROLANGUAGE mini dictionary of 300 astronomical terms compiled by Veikko Makela. The remainder was compiled from emails I've received from various folks around the world. Thank you all!
  8. Special thanks to Sam Giloi who sent me the words in Alemannisch, Ligurian, Franco-Provenal, Scottish Gaelic, Yiddish, Nahuatl, Venetian, Limburgish, Jerriais, Kolsch, West Frisian, Walloon, Sicilian, Scots, Lithuanian, Samogitian, Low German, Luxembourgish, Maori, Faroese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, Sesotho, Sepedi, Tswana, and Klingon!
  9. See Peter Blinn's Planetary Gazetteer for more
  10. I would appreciate any additions or corrections to this table.

Adjectives

The English adjectives relating to the planets do not always derive simply from the noun forms:

   Noun        Adjectival form
   ------      ---------------
   Sun         Solar
   Mercury     Mercurial
   Venus       Cytherean, Venerian
   Earth       Terrestrial, Telluric
   Moon        Lunar
   Mars        Martian, Arean
   Jupiter     Jovian
   Saturn      Saturnian
   Uranus      Uranian
   Neptune     Neptunian
   Pluto       Plutonian, Hadean

Days of the Week

The seven-day system we use is based on the ancient astrological notion that the seven known celestial bodies influence what happens on Earth and that each of these celestial bodies controls the first hour of the day named after it. This system was brought into Hellenistic Egypt from Mesopotamia, where astrology had been practiced for millennia and where seven had always been a propitious number. In A.D. 321 the Emperor Constantine the Great grafted this astrological system onto the Roman calendar, made the first day of this new week a day of rest and worship for all, and imposed the following sequence and names to the days of the week. This new Roman system was adopted with modifications throughout most of western Europe: in the Germanic languages, such as Old English, the names of four of the Roman gods were converted into those of the corresponding Germanic gods:

    Celestial           Germanic  modern     modern
    Body      Latin       god     English    Italian
    -------   --------  --------  ---------  ----------
    Sun       Solis               Sunday     domenica
    Moon      Lunae               Monday     lunedì
    Mars      Martis    Tiu       Tuesday    martedì
    Mercury   Mercurii  Wodan     Wednesday  mercoledì
    Jupiter   Jovis     Donar     Thursday   giovedì
    Venus     Veneris   Freya     Friday     venerdì
    Saturn    Saturni             Saturday   sabato

The Latin names for the weekdays survive in the modern Romance languages (though the weekend day names have been altered). Also, Japanese words for the days of the week also correspond indirectly to the same planets.

However, Prof. Neves of Universidade Nova de Lisboa informs me that there are remarkable exceptions: at least in Hebrew, in Greek, in Arabic, and in Portuguese (and in languages that were informed by those, like the Timorese Tetum), the days of the week are numbered. Sunday is number one (or day of the Lord in Portuguese - Domingo- and in Greek -Kiriaki). Friday is number six (except in Arabic, which calls it Day of the Gatthering) and all 4 languages call Sabbath (Sabado,as-Sabt, etc) to Saturday.

Months

Two of the English month names are also have planetary connections: January is named for Janus and March is named for Mars.

More origins from mythology:


Home ... Appendices ... Origin ... Linguistics ... Names

Bill Arnett; last updated: 2008 Aug 18

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